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How does ATM work? Structure and device

Every bank cardholder at least once in his life came across an ATM. For us, an ATM is a multifunctional device that allows you to realize almost all the card's features. But it was not always so. At the dawn of its development, ATMs, or, scientifically speaking, ATMs (Automated Teller Machine), were intended only for cash.


The first ATMs appeared in 1967. Then, to receive the money, it was necessary not the usual cards today, but individual checks issued by banks to their customers. After five years, in 1972, ATMs were working with plastic cards. The development of hardware and software has made it possible overtime to turn these devices from simple "automated machines for issuing money" into powerful complexes that can replace an entire banking office.


What are they like?

There are quite a few companies producing ATMs. NCR, Diebold, Wincor, Nautilus ... Each of these companies has its vision of how ATM should look and work. In general, all ATMs can be divided into three large groups:


  • Classic ATMs. Devices designed for cash withdrawal only.
  • Cash-in ATMs. These devices allow not only to issue but also to accept cash.
  • Recycle ATM. The most modern devices only recently appeared on the market. They are a further development of Cash-in ATMs. Below we will consider their features in more detail.


It is worth highlighting self-service payment terminals separately. These are simplified cash-only devices. Historically, they are not categorized as ATMs, although the methods for working with cash are similar to the cash-in module of their older ATM brothers.

Is there a Tetris there?

The ATM is programmatically an ordinary computer with peripheral devices connected to it:

  • printer
  • monitor
  • a keyboard
  • and so on.

These peripheral devices are quite specific, but their disconnection, in general, does not affect the operation of the system unit. If you turn off the receipt printer, the system will notify you of this but will continue to work.

It used to be installed on ATMs as the base OS / 2 operating system. But with the advent of the Windows family, there was a migration to these OSs. At the same time, I came across several variants of systems: from Windows NT to Windows 7. Currently, the most common system is Windows XP.

Of course, a lot of specific software is installed on the ATM: peripheral device drivers, specialized banking software, etc. Due to a large number of various processing centres, there are a lot of varieties of such software. But they have the same tasks:

ensuring stable communication with the processing centre of the bank;

  • encryption
  • transfer of relevant information (card number, PIN block, type and amount of transaction, etc.);
  • processing responses.
  • And answering the question in the section heading - if you wish, you can play Tetris at the ATM (I used to kill time waiting for spare parts or collectors), but first, you need to install it there.


What's inside?
Grand Theft Auto San Andreas Alien City MOD Free Download

Grand Theft Auto San Andreas Alien City MOD Free Download

Grand Theft Auto San Andreas Alien City MOD Free Download

Regardless of the category to which the ATM belongs, it can be physically divided into two halves: the upper (technical) part and the safe. In the technical block must be located:


  • monitor;
  • receipt printer;
  • PIN keyboard
  • card reader.


Of the optional components, you can list the following:


  • Journal printer (in modern ATMs, the journal is kept in electronic form). Previously, using this printer, the logs of the ATM operation for each operation were printed on a special ribbon.
  • System unit. The system unit is always present in the ATM. But some manufacturers place it in the safe part. For example, NCR did this before.
  • Screen keyboard. This component became optional when touch screens began to be actively used.
  • CCTV Cameras. Despite the provided regular places, an increasing number of banks give preference to external cameras. In general, this is a logical approach: for example, in case of theft of an ATM, you can get a record of the incident.
The most important and interesting part is contained in the safe part.
How To Install


The main and often the only component (for classic ATMs) located there is a dispenser. Its main task is to set notes and prepare a bundle for delivery to the client. Money is stored in special cassettes, the values ​​of which are clearly defined. The dispenser contains from 4 to 6 cassettes with cash and one so-called red jack cassette, designed for rejected bills. The cassette capacity is from 2000 to 2500 thousand sheets. However, the ATM will not be able to issue them all in one operation. This is due to a physical restriction: no more than 40 bills pass through to the presenter (the part of the dispenser through which the bundle of cash goes to the client). And often it is limited pro grammatically to 30 or even less. It is precise because of this that it happens that, even having a large amount on the account, it is impossible to remove more than 40 or even 20 thousand rubles from the card.

Money can be withdrawn from cassettes in two different ways: mechanical (Winkor, Die bold) or vacuum (NCR). In the first version, the extreme one is lined with rubber wheels from the cassette in which there is a large bundle of notes. After that, this bill is fed into the track, where it is moved with the help of belts in a special compartment. A bundle is accumulated there for delivery to the client, that is, banknotes of various denominations in the required quantity (total not more than 40 pieces). Then the shutter opens (a cap that protects the issuing mechanism from various influences), and the money leaves the safe. This happens with the same belts. If you do not have time to collect your cash within 30 seconds, the ATM will pull them back and drop the cassette into the reject.

The mechanism for feeding notes into the storage compartment is the same in both cases. The only difference between the second, vacuum method is that the bill does not coalesce from the cassette, but is removed from there using suction cups.

It happens that in the process of moving bills, they get stuck on belts, tear, jam. As a rule, this leads to a dispenser error and an ATM stop. Often, a safe turn into a cost house for rodents, which leads to sad consequences, in the form of unhappy animals, which are wound on belts.

The interaction of the system unit with the dispenser is carried out by means of a special electronics board, which is also hidden in a safe. She communicates with all devices: keyboard, printers, dispenser. Directly, the system unit communicates only with a network card, through which an ATM and a processing center are connected.

In cash-in ATM's near the dispenser, a cash acceptance module is installed. Only two cassettes are already installed here, for receiving cash and a reject cassette. There can be two cassettes for rejected bills. Some cassettes have two compartments: for counterfeit and defective (torn, wrinkled, etc.) notes and for "forgotten" notes. Above all, this is a module that verifies banknotes for authenticity. It looks like a narrow, one-bill-tall, tunnel with a mass of sensors, each configured to its own criteria for determining authenticity. Therefore, in order to trick a bill accept or of an ATM, you need to make a lot of effort.

In addition to ATM's with a cash-in module, there are ATMs with a deposit module. They allow you to work not only with cash but also with material values ​​and documents. Upon completion of the operation, the client is given an envelope where he puts what he needs to put in the deposit box and put it in the ATM. The envelope indicates:
  • date of;
  • time;
  • card number
  • other information that accurately identifies the client.

Similar devices in our country are presented in single copies.
The period of operation of the ATM from collection to collection depends on how much it is in demand, and can range from one day to several months. But usually does not exceed two weeks. This is due to the fact that the bank is not profitable to divert a lot of cash for bookmarking in cassettes, because the money should work. The collection is made as the cassettes with cash are empty or when filling cassettes for receiving money.

Relatively recently appeared recycling ATMs. As well as Cash-in ATMs, they can work for receiving and issuing cash. Unlike the first ones, which accept all bills in one cassette, without distinguishing their face value, each one has its own cassette. Cash paid into the ATM by one client is issued to the next.

Thanks to this mechanism, the duration of the operating cycle (time from collection to collection) can be several years. If any cassette is full, the ATM simply stops accepting banknotes of the corresponding denomination until space is available in it. Of course, no bank allows such an amount of time to last for the operating cycle, but the frequency of collection of such devices is much less than that of conventional ones.

Due to the features of passing notes in the path of such an ATM, they are checked for authenticity three times:
  • the first time - when you only insert bills into the bill acceptor;
  • the second - when you confirm the operation, and your money is sent to the appropriate cassettes;
  • the third is when someone withdraws cash, and they go out.

All this gives a high guarantee that the fake will not work. If a fake bill gets caught, it will be reset to a special cassette. Finding a customer trying to trick a customer's system is not difficult.


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